Aim: Katherina Marchese

Karl Marx studied the philosophy of capitalism, and that it produces two classes: a capitalist who owns all resources and a laborer who works in order to survive. Marxism is essentially the underlying name of the relationship between these two classes, as Marx describe his analysis through three main theories: alienation, labor of value, and the materialism of society. Overall, this relationship will create one half of a workforce that is powerless and weakened, while the other controls all aspects of the marketplace. It is explicitly stated that through a capitalistic society, in Marx’s view, workers will, “lose their ability to develop the finer qualities which belong to them as members of the human species” (Ollman 1). From this, the Marxist vision of socialism manifests from the potential in which a capitalist society can evolve and expand from, allowing individualism. To Karl Marx, the contradictions of capitalism are too apparent to function well in a society for everyone, due to the recurring competition and profits exponentially increasing (Trainer 1). To Marx, the capitalist society would eventually collapse within itself, causing for a revolution to involve a major social change. Eventually, however, socialism would took root, creating a classless society to which in the utopia Marxism had created.

Works Cited:
Ollman, Bertell. "What Is Marxism? A Bird's-Eye View." Dialectical Marxism. The Writings of Bertell Ollman, n.d. Web. 2 Feb. 2015.

Trainer, Ted. "A Brief Introduction." A Marxist Theory. University of New South Wales, Mar. 2010. Web. 02 Feb. 2015.

Historical: Alexis Roether
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Marxism in plain definition means to have a type of communist society; this has also been defined as “Utopia”, Anarchism, or Doctrinaire socialism. Karl Marx is known worldwide for being the Father of Marxism when they started the movement to fight for self-emancipation in the working class. Karl Marx was born in Trier, Germany in 1818 and grew up to emphasize these political and social ideas but these were highly ignored until later after the socialist movement of 1883 where many groups were formed to help gain popularity of his political/economic ideas. One of the groups formed during Marx’s time that he was associated with was known as the Young Hegelian movement, which incorporated a critiqued, radical Christian view as well as a liberal approach on the Prussian autocracy on how society should function and incorporate morals. In 1867, after many hardships, Marx published Volume I of the Capital, this was the first of three pamphlets which focused on the capitalist approach he hoped he could persuade society to follow. The idea of Marxism has also been incorporated through many different viewpoints through the teachings of Joseph Stalin, Mao Tse-Tung, and Malcolm X. Marxism today has a negative connotation to the word because the fundamentals of a communist society embodies certain human freedoms to be taken away but these men truly believed that it was the best way to shape a country. “Marxism is not a movement of followers, but it is nevertheless a movement which is integrally concerned with an interconnected body of theoretical and political writing which traces its origins back to Marx” (Blunden 1). This is important to understand, that the history of Marxism is not directly related to the man Karl Marx, just that it originates from Marx’s time and has now been incorporated throughout historical events to mean what it is known as today.

Works Cited:
Blunden, Andy. "Marxism." Marxists. Web. 3 Feb. 2015.

Kreis, Steven. "Karl Marx, 1818-1883." The History Guide: Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History. 30 Jan. 2008. Web. 3 Feb.

Cultural: Christian Jennings

The great divide between capitalism and Marxism is one that not only continues in diluted strength but is a taught as a basic social study throughout the world. The roots of Marxism continue to resurface in modern society’s culture as young individuals begin to consider the ill effects of capitalism and the benefits of Marxist theory. According to the article “Marx Continues to Influence 125 Years After His Death”, German broadcaster Deutsche Welle reports, "[Das Kapital’s] condemnation of the specific injustice of the capitalist system has few peers. So, as long as there are capitalists, Marx will remain relevant" (Amies 1). Although few countries remain of the massive communist movement of the early and mid twentieth century, Marxism remains an integral component of social philosophy and debate. This is because Karl Marx’s Das Kapital is known as the foundation of socialist theory, which in consequence, one of the most influential works of modern history as it has spread it roots into capitalist and communist minds. However, in the west, Marxism carries with it a much lighter connotation than it did in the late twentieth century as Stuart Jeffries of The Guardian explains that Marxism, ”. . . is untainted by association with Stalinist gulags” (1). Today’s culture is made up of individuals raised in capitalist societies who were taught of Marxism’s inevitable corruption and inefficiency rather than experiencing the conflict to contain is expansion first-hand as their parents and grandparents had experienced. It is within this disparity of personal experience that Marxism’s mark is on the rise within modern day’s culture as younger generations begin to question the capitalist economic theory, which has caused a massive accumulation of debt within most western countries, a global economic recession, and a 1% that owns more property than the 99%. From these circumstances, Marxism - the theory that constitutes communism - is ever-present in modern culture as the youth begin to look to the past for solutions to the problems plaguing the economies of today.

Works Cited:
Amies, Nick. “Marx Continues to Influence 125 Years After His Death.” Deutsche Welle. Deutsche Welle, 14 Mar. 2008. Web. 2 Feb. 2015

Jeffries, Stuart. “Why Marxism is on the rise again.” The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited, 4 July 2012. Web. 2 Feb. 2015.

Audience: Austin Athouguia

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Marxism, created by Karl Marx, was implemented in order to try and answer questions that society held about the capitalist ways around them. Not only that, but Marx also tried to get across to society, the wrongs of Capitalism and the “inevitable, harmonious socialist future inspired a revolution of global proportions.” (Prychitko). In the 20th century, there appeared to be a root of Marxism beginning to take place, in Russia specifically, when the revolution began and communism began to make its mark on the country. This ideology was highly concentrated in the Eastern part of the world, never really making it over to the Western Hemisphere. The thoughts that Marxism brings up, are mainly focused around the individual and how they are affected by the world around them. For example, in his theory of alienation he, described the relation between a worker and a company and the way that that worker is affected by the way they must earn their livings (Ollman). This theory of Marxism, that the worker is directly affected in the mind, body and daily lives, of the workers is a large part of what the ideology is directed to. A large part of the audience of the Marxism ideal is the workforce, which is what composes most of the individuals that are a part of the society around. Marx believes that the workforce is tremendously taken advantage of and alienated from the very jobs they hold, and are just in a sense, pawns of the businesses they work for. These ideals give a voice to the workers of society and try to bring out the idea that there are people under these large companies too, and the pretty face of the company that the consumers sees, is not what the entire company is composed of whatsoever. This belief that the workforce is greatly overlooked, makes the argument for those very people that much stronger in order to defend the people in those positions and give them a voice when they appear not to have one for themselves.

Works Cited:

Prychitko, David. "Marxism." The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. 2008. Library of Economics and Liberty. 3 February 2015.

Ollman, Bertell. "What Is Marxism?" Dialectical Marxism. Bertell Ollman, n.d. Web. 31 Jan. 2015.